Main Article Content

Abstract

Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are the causes of coronary heart disease (CHD) so that the presence of hypercholesterolemia in patients with hypertension will increase the risk of CHD. Central obesity describes the accumulation of fat in the stomach which can lead to abnormalities in the amount of lipids in the blood, when it occurs in patients with hypertension can lead to progression of the occurrence of high blood cholesterol and the risk of causing atherosclerosis and heart disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of waist circumference and other factors with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia in patients with hypertension. This research is a quantitative study through secondary data with Cross Sectional design. According to the results of multivariate tests with multiple logistic regression, there was a relationship between waist circumference, gender and age after being controlled by physical activity variables. Gender as a risk factor most associated with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia with a risk 8.5 times higher in women than men, then carried out waist circumference stratification test by sex in hypertensive patients with cases of central obesity found a significant relationship that women with central obesity have a risk of experiencing hypercholesterolemia as much as 5.5 times compared to central obesity in men with a value of p <0.05. There is a waist circumference relationship with the incidence of hypercholesterolemia in women who are central obesity more at risk of developing hypercholesterolemia than central obesity in men.


Keywords: Hypercholesterolemia, waist circumference, hypertensive patients

Keywords

Hypercholesterolemia waist circumference Hhypertension patients

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Hana S, Sartika RAD. The Relationship Of Waist Circumference And Hypercholesterolemia Incidence In Patient With Hypertension in Tegal Gundil Public Health Center at Bogor City. J Keskom [Internet]. 2019Apr.23 [cited 2019Jul.15];5(1):34-3. Available from: http://jurnal.htp.ac.id/index.php/keskom/article/view/335

References

  1. Yekeen, L. ., Sanusi, R. ., & Ketiku, A. . (2003). Prevalence Of Obesity And High Level Of Cholesterol In Hypertension: Analysis of Data from the University College Hospital, Ibadan. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 6(January 1998), 129–132. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajbr.v6i3.54040
  2. Feryadi, R., Sulastri, D., & Kadri, H. (2014). Hubungan Kadar Profil Lipid dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang Tahun 2012. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 3(2), 206–211.
  3. Margarita, Y., Andi, P., Erwina, M., Valentinus, R., Kidarsa, B., Sutrisna, B., (2011). Kadar Kolesterol Total dan Tekanan Darah Orang Dewasa Indonesia Total Cholesterol and Blood Pressure Among Indonesian Adults, (1),79–84.
  4. Borghi, C., Urso, R., & Cicero, A. F. (2017). Renin–angiotensin system at the crossroad of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 27(2), 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2016.07.013
  5. Stamler, J., Neaton, J. D., Cohen, J. D., Cutler, J., Eberly, L., Grandits, G., Prineas, R. (2012). Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Revisited : A New Perspective. Journal of the American Heart Association, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.112.003640
  6. Sirenko, Y., & Radchenko, G. (2017). Impact of Statin Therapy on the Blood Pressure-Lowering Efficacy of a Single-Pill Perindopril/Amlodipine Combination in Hypertensive Patients with Hypercholesterolemia. High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention, 24(1), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40292-017-0184-5
  7. Egan, Brent, Li, Jiexiang , Qanungo, Suparna, and Wolfman, T. E. (2014). Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Control in Hypertensive Hypercholesterolemic Patients: NHANES 1988–2010. NIH Public Access, Circulation. Author Manuscript; Available in PMC 2014 July 02. Published, 128(1), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000500.Blood
  8. Ompusunggu, Intan Juliana. (2010). Model Prediksi dan Sistem Skor Terjadinya Dislipidemia pada Penderita Hipertensi Dewasa Urban. Universitas Indonesia.
  9. Feryadi, R., Sulastri, D., & Kadri, H. (2014). Hubungan Kadar Profil Lipid dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Masyarakat Etnik Minangkabau di Kota Padang Tahun 2012. Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 3(2), 206–211.
  10. Maryati, H. (2017). Hubungan Kadar Kolesterol dengan Tekanan Darah Penderita Hipertensi Di Dusun Sidomulyo Desa Rejoagung Kecamatan Ploso Kabupaten Jombang, 8, 128–137.
  11. Lestari. (2015). Hubungan Kadar Kolesterol dengan Tekanan Darah pada Pra Lansia Hipertensi di Posyandu Lansia Dusun Jetis Bantul Yogyakarta Madhur, A. M. S., Editor, C., & Maron, D. J. (2014). Hypertension Treatment & Management, 1–22.
  12. Hasliani. (2017). Hubungan Kadar Kolesterol dengan Hipertensi pada Penderita Penyakit Ginjal Kronik Di RSUD Dr. Moewardi. http://eprints.ums.ac.id/50480/24/naskah publikasi dian.pdf
  13. WHO. (2008). Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation (Geneva, 8-11 Desember 2008). World Health Organization, (December), 8–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.139
  14. Listiyana, A., Prameswari, G. N., & Mardiana. (2013). Obesitas Sentral Dan Kadar Kolesterol Darah Total. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 9(1), 37–43. https://doi.org/ISSN 1858-1196
  15. Després JP1 , Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E, Rodés-Cabau J, Bertrand OF, P. P. (2008). Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol., 28(6), 1039–1049. https://doi.org/doi: 10.161/ATVBAHA.107.159228. Epub 2008 Mar 20.
  16. Yao, Zhou, Frommlet, Wang, H., & Yan, Zhi-Tao , Luo, Wen-Li , Hong, Jing , Wang, Xin-Ling, Li1, N.-F. (2010). Prevalence of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidaemia among over 30-year-old minority individuals from the pasture area of Xinjiang. Circulation, 122(2), e187. Retrieved from http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=emed9&NEWS=N&AN=70232386
  17. Sudikno, Hidayat Syarief, Cesilia Meti Dwiriani, Hadi Riyadi, J. P. (2016). Hubungan Obesitas Sentral Dengan Profil Lipid Pada Orang Dewasa Umur 25-65 Tahun Di Kota Bogor (Baseline Studi Penyakit Tidak Menular di Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat) The. Journal of The Indonesian Nutrition Association, 39(2), 81–92.
  18. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2013. Laporan Nasional 2013, 1–384. Desember 2013
  19. Safe’i, A. (2013). Hubungan Antara Jenis Makanan dengan Angka Kejadian Hipertensi Pada Lansia Di Kelurahan Katulampa Kota bogor.
  20. Laporan Tahunan Puskesmas Tegal Gundil (2017)
  21. Ivanovic, B., & Tadic, M. (2015). Hypercholesterolemia and Hypertension: Two Sides of the Same Coin. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, 15(6), 403–414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40256-015-0128-1
  22. Kaulina, F. (2009). Hubungan antara asupan kolesterol, lingkar pinggang dengan profil lipid. Artikel Penelitian. Program Studi Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Kedokteran. Universitas Dipeonegoro
  23. Simbar M, Pandelaki K, Wongkar MCP. Hubungan Lingkar Pinggang dengan Profil Lipid pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2. Jurnal e-Clinic (eCl. 2015; 3(1).
  24. Fasli, J., Nur Indrawaty, L., Novia, S., & Fadil, O. (2010). Hubungan Lingkar Pinggang dengan Kadar Gula Darah, Trigliserida dan Tekanan Darah pada Etnis Minang di Kabupaten Padang Pariaman, Sumatera Barat. Universitas Andalas, 2010 - Repository.Unand.Ac.Id, 1–23.
  25. Darmawan, H., & Irfanuddin, I. (2007). Effect of age and sex on the association between lipid profile and obesity among telecomunication workers in Palembang. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 16(4), 251. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v16i4.286
  26. Mamat, & Sudikno. (2010). Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kadar Kolesterol HDL (Analisis Data of The Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007/2008), 33(2), 143–149.
  27. Lee, R. D., & Nieman, D. C. (2012). Nutritional Assessment. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America (Vol. 27). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-8553(05)70007-8
  28. Flegal, Katherine M. (2000). Obesity, Overweight, Hypertension, and High Blood Cholesterol: The Importance of Age. Obesity Research Vol. 8 No. 9 December 2000
  29. Bays, H. (2003). Early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus : a condition with elevated cardiovascular risk ? Abstract RE IO ) L ED N IM IN. Diabetes, 3, 356–360.
  30. Pandey, A. K., Pandey, D., & Pandit, A. (2017). Obesity and Lipid Profile Study in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Auditory and Reaction Time Deficits and Non-diabetic Control Subjects. Advances in Diabetes and Metabolism, 5(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.13189/adm.2017.050101
  31. Sari, Y. D., Prihartini, S., & Brantas, K. (2014). Asupan serat makanan dan kadar kolesterol-LDL Penduduk Berusia 25-65 Tahun di KelurahanKEbon Kelapa, Bogor. Penelitian Gizi Dan Makanan, 37(1), 51–58. Retrieved from http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/pgm/article/view/4008
  32. NHANES. (2017). Cholesterol among adults aged 20 and over , by selected characteristics : United States , selected years 1988 – 1994 through 2013 – 2016 Table 55 . Cholesterol among adults aged 20 and over , by selected characteristics: United States , select. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/contents2017.htm#055
  33. Djuwita, R. (2013). Asupan Gizi dan Kadar Low Density Lipoprotein Kolesterol Darah pada Kalangan Eksekutif. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional, 8(2).
  34. Ganong, William F. (2008). Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran, Edisi 22 alih bahasa: Brahm U, editor: Andita Novrianti, et al. Jakarta: EGC
  35. Palmisano, B. T., Zhu, L., Eckel, R. H., & Stafford, J. M. (2018). Sex differences in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Molecular Metabolism, 15(May), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2018.05.008
  36. Tsalissavrina, Iva , Wahono, Djoko , Handayani, D. (2006). The Influence Of High-Carbohydrate Diet Administration In Comparison With High-Fat Diet Toward Triglyceride And HDL Level In Blood On Rattus Novergicus Strain Wistar Iva. Kedokteran Brawijaya, XXII(2).
  37. Faisal Baraas. (2003). Mencegah Serangan Penyakit Jantung dengan menekan kolesterol. Jakarta: Kardia Iqratama.
  38. Juanda, H., MA, T., Ruhimat, U., & Suardi, E. (2009). Kadar Adiponektin Sebagai Faktor Risiko Penebalan Tunika Intima Media Arteri Karotis. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, 41(2), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v41n2.186
  39. Marsche, G., Zelzer, S., Meinitzer, A., Kern, S., Meissl, S., Pregartner, G., … Mangge, H. (2017). Adiponectin Predicts High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Adults Irrespective of Body Mass Index and Fat Distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 102, 4117–4123. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00933
  40. Sung, S., Chuang, S., Sheu, W. H., & Lee, W. (2001). ADIPONECTIN IS ASSOCIATED WITH EARLY STAGE OF HYPERTENSION IS THERE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE P2-40. In 16th Asian Pacific Congress of Cardiology (p. 92). Taipei.
  41. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL. 2009. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Fifth Edition. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learn- ing.
  42. Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention. 2nd ed. US: CRC Press Taylor&Francis Group; 2013. P. 424-427