Stress Level of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Areas During The Covid- 19 Pandemic in Performing Self-Care Management
Keywords:Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Rural, Stres
The current condition of the COVID-19 pandemic affects health, especially for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural areas in performing self-care management. One of the impact conditions is mental health problems. The study aims were to describe the stress level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural areas during the COVID-19 pandemic in performing self-care management. This was quantitative descriptive research with a survey approach. The sample of this study was the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural areas amounted to 149 respondents which were taken by the accidental sampling. The location of the research was carried out in three areas of Primary Health Care at Malang Regency. The measuring instrument used is the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). The research found the stress level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were in the medium category (77.9%). The stress level based on indicators due to the emotional burden is a medium category (71.1%), due to health workers is a medium category (59.7%), due to treatment is a medium category (51%) and due to interpersonal relationships is a medium category (59.1%). Concluded that the stress level category for the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural areas during the pandemic in performing self-care management is in the medium category.
Alfianto, A. G. et al. (2019) â€˜Pengaruh Psikoedukasi Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Stigma Gangguan Jiwaâ€™, JI-KES: Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 2(2), pp. 37â€“41.
De Almeida-Pititto, B. et al. (2020) â€˜Severity and mortality of COVID 19 in patients with Diabetes , hypertension and cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysisâ€™, Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 12(1), pp. 1â€“12. doi: 10.1186/s13098-020-00586-4.
Arifin, B. et al. (2017) â€˜Translation, Revision, and Validation of the Diabetes Distres Scale for Indonesian Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients with Various Types of Complicationsâ€™, Value in Health Regional Issues, 12, pp. 63â€“73. doi: 10.1016/j.vhri.2017.03.010.
Arifin, B. et al. (2019) â€˜Diabetes distres in Indonesian patients with Type 2 Diabetes : a comparison between primary and tertiary careâ€™, BMC health services research, 19(1), p. 773. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4515-1.
Daoud, N. et al. (2015) â€˜Self-care management among patients with Type 2 Diabetes in East Jerusalemâ€™, Health Education Journal, 74(5), pp. 603â€“615. doi: 10.1177/0017896914555038.
Febrianita, D. A., Alfianto, A. G. and Muntaha, M. (2021) â€˜Gambaran Kepatuhan Minum Obat pada Penderita Gangguan Bipolar di Masa Pandemi Covid-19â€™, Media Husada Journal Of Nursing Science, 2(2), pp. 1â€“5. doi: 10.33475/mhjns.v2i2.38.
Fisher, L. et al. (2012) â€˜When is Diabetes distres clinically meaningful? Establishing cut points for the Diabetes distres scaleâ€™, Diabetes Care, 35(2), pp. 259â€“264. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1572.
Gupta, N. et al. (2016) â€˜Psychological Aspects Related to Diabetes Mellitusâ€™, 2016.
Hackett, R. A. and Steptoe, A. (2016) â€˜Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Riskâ€™, Current Cardiology Reports, 18(10). doi: 10.1007/s11886-016-0771-4.
Joensen, L. E. et al. (2020) â€˜Diabetes and COVID-19: psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in people with Diabetes in Denmarkâ€”what characterizes people with high levels of COVID-19-related worries?â€™, Diabetic Medicine, 37(7), pp. 1146â€“1154. doi: 10.1111/dme.14319.
Leonita, E. and Muliani, A. (2015) â€˜Penggunaan Obat Tradisional oleh Penderita Diabetes Mellitus dan Faktor-faktor yang Berhubungan di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Rejosari Pekanbaru Tahun 2015â€™, Jurnal Kesehatan Komunitas, 3(1), pp. 47â€“52. doi: 10.25311/keskom.vol3.iss1.101.
Manik, M. J., Natalia, S. and Theresia (2021) â€˜Social stigma towards nurses taking care of patients with COVID-19 in Indonesia: A mixed-methods studyâ€™, Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(2), pp. 98â€“106. doi: 10.33546/bnj.1322.
Al Mansour, M. A. (2020) â€˜The prevalence and risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DMT2) in a semi-urban Saudi populationâ€™, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), pp. 1â€“8. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17010007.
Mukona, D. M. and Zvinavashe, M. (2020) â€˜Self- management of Diabetes Mellitus during the Covid-19 pandemic: Recommendations for a resource limited settingâ€™, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(6), pp. 1575â€“1578. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.08.022.
Pahlawati, A. and Nugroho, P. S. (2019) â€˜Hubungan Tingkat Pendidikan dan Usia dengan Kejadian Diabetes Melitus di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Palaran Kota Samarinda Tahun 2019â€™, Borneo Student Research (BSR), 1(1), pp. 1â€“5. Available at: http://journals.umkt.ac.id/index.php/bsr/article/view/479.
Polonsky, W. H. et al (2005) â€˜Assessing Psychosocial Distres inâ€™, Diabetes Care, 28(3), pp. 626â€“631.
Sattar, N. et al. (2019) â€˜Age at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Associations With Cardiovascular and Mortality Risks: Findings From the Swedish National Diabetes Registryâ€™, Circulation, 139(19), pp. 2228â€“2237. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037885.
Shiri Shinan-Altmana, and I. L. (2021) â€˜Emotional reactions towards COVID-19 among persons with Diabetes â€™, International Health, pp. 1â€“6. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihab024.
Vasanth, R., Ganesh, A. and Shanker, R. (2017) â€˜Impact of stres on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus managementâ€™, Psychiatria Danubina, 29, pp. S416â€“S421.
Zaim, S. et al. (2020) â€˜COVID-19 and Multiorgan Responseâ€™, Current Problems in Cardiology, 45(8), p. 100618. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2020.100618.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Kesehatan Komunitas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright @2017. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial used, distribution and reproduction in any medium